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  1. 1851
    Congress creates reservations to manage Native peoples
    The U.S. Congress passes the Indian Appropriations Act, creating the reservation system. The government ...
  2. 1861–65
    Tribes react to the American Civil War
    Although most Indian tribes remain neutral in the conflict, some American Indians join Union or Confederate ...
  3. 1870
    Education promised to tribes is funded
    Congress earmarks the first federal funds for the education of Indians. Education, like health care, ...
  4. 1872
    General Mining Act gives rise to the taking of tribal lands
    President Ulysses S. Grant signs the General Mining Act into law, allowing individuals and corporations ...
  5. 1887
    U.S. subdivides reservation land; sells off surplus
    Congress passes the General Allotment Act, better known as the Dawes Severalty Act, which divides reservations ...