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Supreme Court rules Indian nations not subject to state law
The second of three court cases (the “Marshall Trilogy”) that become the foundation of American Indian ...
U.S. vaccinates Native peoples on the frontier against smallpox
Congress passes the Indian Vaccination Act and appropriates $12,000 to hire physicians to vaccinate Native ...
After the Mexican War, doctors reach western tribes
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ends the Mexican War (1846–48) between the U.S. and Mexico. The agreement ...
Indian Affairs moves to Interior Department; U.S. approach to tribes shifts
Signaling a change in approach toward Native peoples, the federal government moves the Office of Indian ...
Congress creates reservations to manage Native peoples
The U.S. Congress passes the Indian Appropriations Act, creating the reservation system. The government ...
Tribes react to the American Civil War
Although most Indian tribes remain neutral in the conflict, some American Indians join Union or Confederate ...
President Grant advances “Peace Policy” with tribes
President Ulysses S. Grant advances a “Peace Policy” to remove corrupt Indian agents, who supervise reservations, ...
Navajo internment ends, but 2,000 died while imprisoned
In May, a census at the Bosque Redondo Reservation, located in what is now known as New Mexico, sets ...
Education promised to tribes is funded
Congress earmarks the first federal funds for the education of Indians. Education, like health care, ...
The U.S. ceases making treaties with tribes
When Congress passes a law ending the federal government’s practice of making treaties with Indian nations, ...