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Congress creates reservations to manage Native peoples
The U.S. Congress passes the Indian Appropriations Act, creating the reservation system. The government ...
Civil War general Stand Watie, Cherokee, surrenders last
The Cherokee chief Stand Watie is the last Confederate general to surrender in the Civil War. Watie’ ...
U.S. requires Alaska Commercial Company to hire Unangan (Aleut)
The U.S. government awards the Alaska Commercial Company an exclusive lease to hunt fur seals on the ...
First off-reservation boarding school for Native children opens
Congress authorizes the establishment of the Carlisle Indian Industrial School in Pennsylvania. The ...
Alaska regions assigned to religious denominations
Dr. Sheldon Jackson, the head of the Presbyterian Mission in Alaska, is appointed U.S. General Agent ...
Indian Affairs Commissioner bans Native languages in schools
Commissioner of Indian Affairs J. D. C. Atkins first bans instruction in Native languages as well as ...
Apache armed resistance ends; Geronimo surrenders
Goyathlay, a powerful Apache leader, also known as Geronimo, hands his rifle to a U.S. general in surrender. ...
U.S. subdivides reservation land; sells off surplus
Congress passes the General Allotment Act, better known as the Dawes Severalty Act, which divides reservations ...
Indian boarding schools teach manual labor
Commissioner of Indian Affairs William A. Jones questions the potential of Indian students to compete ...
U.S. annexes Hawai‘i; seizes land; suppresses healers
The U.S. annexes Hawai‘i and seizes royal and government lands. Launching aggressive assimilation policies, ...