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The Zuni resist a conquistador but retreat from Spanish guns
The Spanish conquistador Francisco Vasquez de Coronado seeks the “Seven Cities of Gold.” At Hawikuh, ...
Congress pays missionaries to ‘civilize’ American Indians
Congress appropriates $10,000 to pay what it calls people of “good moral character” to help the U.S. eliminate ...
Congress creates reservations to manage Native peoples
The U.S. Congress passes the Indian Appropriations Act, creating the reservation system. The government ...
First Ghost Dance movement seeks revival of cultures
The Ghost Dance is a Native spiritual movement of hope and renewal that originates with Wodziwob, a ...
Indian Affairs Commissioner bans Native languages in schools
Commissioner of Indian Affairs J. D. C. Atkins first bans instruction in Native languages as well as ...
U.S. subdivides reservation land; sells off surplus
Congress passes the General Allotment Act, better known as the Dawes Severalty Act, which divides reservations ...
Yavapai doctor advocates for Indian self-determination
The Yavapai doctor Carlos Montezuma (who was named Wassaja, “gathering” or “beckoning,” at birth) graduates ...
Indian boarding schools teach manual labor
Commissioner of Indian Affairs William A. Jones questions the potential of Indian students to compete ...
Commissioner calls for religious freedom for American Indians
Commissioner of Indian Affairs, John Collier, issues a circular on American Indian religious freedom, ...
National Congress of American Indians established
The National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) is founded. A generation educated in off-reservation ...