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  1. 1924
    American Indians granted U.S. citizenship
    Inspired by the high rate of American Indian enlistment during World War I, President Calvin Coolidge ...
  2. 1924
    Medical division established in Office of Indian Affairs
    The Office of Indian Affairs creates a separate medical division to administer the growing number of ...
  3. 1924
    Professional nurses hired for reservations
    The Office of Indian Affairs begins hiring professional field nurses to care for Native peoples on reservations.
  4. 1927
    Clean water, sewers needed on most reservations
    After a century of the federal government moving American Indians onto reservations with inadequate ...
  5. 1934
    Commissioner calls for religious freedom for American Indians
    Commissioner of Indian Affairs, John Collier, issues a circular on American Indian religious freedom, ...
  6. 1941–45
    American Indian war effort in World War II is remarkable
    American Indians have the war’s highest rate of voluntary enlistment in the military. Of 350,000 American ...
  7. 1940
    Doctors leave reservations to enlist
    Office of Indian Affairs physicians and surgeons begin leaving Indian reservation hospitals to serve ...
  8. 1946
    Judicial commission adjudicates Native land claims
    The federal government recognizes that American Indians, many of whom served in the armed forces during ...
  9. 1947
    Office of Indian Affairs upgraded to bureau
    The Office of Indian Affairs is upgraded to a governmental bureau, and renamed the Bureau of Indian ...
  10. 1950
    Public Health Service included in ‘doctor draft’
    To meet dire shortages of medical staff on reservations, the Bureau of Indian Affairs medical director ...
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